- 40-year trends in an index of survival for all cancers combined and survival adjusted for age and sex for each cancer in England and Wales, 1971-2011: a population-based study
How do respondents explain anomalous WTP responses? a review of the qualitative evidence.
by A Robinson on 30 October, 2016 at 0:12
Alongside a growing body of empirical research relating to willingness to pay (WTP) valuations of the environment, health and safety, there is mounting evidence of embedding, framing effects and other anomalies in responses. Gaining an understanding into how respondents arrive at WTP values is crucial to determining the possible reasons for such anomalies and helping to construct more ‘valid’ WTP instruments. This paper reports a comprehensive literature review of qualitative research conducted alongside the elicitation of WTP values in the areas of environment, transport safety and health. Our review revealed a paucity of work in this area and the need for further in-depth studies of this kind. Despite a wide range of studies in different sectors, with different focus in terms of the nature of the goods in question and the objectives of the qualitative studies, we identify four preliminary themes: mental accounting, lack of trust, moral outrage and moral satisfaction. The relevance of such findings for the design and interpretation of WTP studies is discussed.
Global health diplomacy: A conceptual review
by K Lee on 29 October, 2016 at 5:05
While global health diplomacy (GHD) has attracted growing attention, accompanied by hopes of its potential to progress global health and/or foreign policy goals, the concept remains imprecise. This paper finds the term has largely been used normatively to describe its expected purpose rather than distinct features. This paper distinguishes between traditional and “new diplomacy”, with the latter defined by its global context, diverse actors and innovative processes. A more concise definition of GHG supports the development of a research agenda for strengthening the evidence base in this rapidly evolving area.
Inaugural Lecture - Professor Kara Hanson: Bringing discipline to the field - an economist’s perspective on health systems
by K Hanson on 24 August, 2016 at 11:11
Inaugural lecture by Kara Hanson, 24 February 2016. Kara Hanson is Professor of Health System Economics and Associate Dean for Research in the Faculty of Public Health and Policy. Professor Hanson reflects on her career from her formative experiences as an Overseas Development Institute Fellow in Swaziland to a PhD at Harvard and joining the School in 1997. She examines the socio-economic and regional inequalities in access to effective health interventions, shows how market interventions have improved access to bednets and antimalarials, and explores how progressive taxation and public/private co-payment models can strengthen health systems. Professor Dame Anne Mills introduces the lecture. She said: "I have worked extremely closely with Kara over many years. She has worked on the economics of malaria, on the private sector and on health systems. As you'd expect, she has a stellar grants and publications record, and has been engaged at promoting impact, for example her evaluation of the Affordable Medicines Facility - malaria was one of our highest ranked REF impact case studies. Kara's very high quality teaching is extremely popular with students."
Commentary on: Household interventions for prevention of domestic lead exposure in children
by M Petticrew on 20 August, 2016 at 19:07
This is a commentary on a Cochrane review, published in this issue of EBCH, first published as: Yeoh B, Woolfenden S, Wheeler DM, Alperstein G, Lanphear B. Household interventions for prevention of domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006047. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006047.pub2. Further information for this Cochrane review is available in this issue of EBCH in the accompanying Summary artic
- The Capability Approach: An Alternative Evaluation Paradigm for Health Economics?
- East meets West: can we prevent blindness from ROP? Editorial
- Statistical modelling of repeated measurement data.
- Prevalence of renal impairment and its association with cardiovascular risk factors in a general population: results of the Swiss SAPALDIA study.
Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy in Established Renal Failure: Demographics, Survival and Biochemical Variables (Chapter 16)
by D Nitsch on 9 July, 2016 at 14:02
Diabetic nephropathy is now the most common renal disease leading to renal replacement therapy in developed countries1,2,3,4. Within the UK, the number of DN patients accepted for RRT rose steadily in the 1990s5 especially in the African–Caribbean and South Asian populations3,4,5,6. This may be related to the increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the general population, the ageing population and the liberalisation of attitudes to acceptance for RRT5,7. The overall rise has slowed in the last 4 years8 . DN patients starting RRT are likely to have more co-morbidity than other patients, in particular cardiovascular disease, and consequently worse survival on RRT9,10,11. In recent years there has been some reduction in the high mortality of such patients, so the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy patients on RRT (currently lower than the percentage of incident patients, see Chapter 3) might increase12,13. The National Service Frameworks for Diabetes14 and for Renal Services15 have highlighted the importance of the primary prevention of DN in diabetic patients by early detection and aggressive management of hypertension, glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors and of the timely referral (recommendation >1 yr before RRT) of those with progressive renal disease in order to plan for RRT. 251 There is a key policy drive to reduce health inequalities in England16. In the UK there is evidence that diabetic patients in more socially deprived areas have higher all cause mortality even after adjustment for smoking and blood pressure9 , and lower rates of attendance at GP and hospital clinics17. The UK Renal Registry 2003 Report highlighted the possible role of social deprivation in the context of DN. This chapter examines the characteristics of patients developing established renal failure from DN, their access to modalities of treatment and their survival on RRT relative to other incident patients. It also includes data on quality of care (HbA1c, cholesterol and blood pressure). These analyses were undertaken before individual patient data from the Scottish Registry became available and therefore only includes England and Wales.